Probiotics, bioactive compounds and dietary patterns for the effective management of hyperuricemia: a review
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Hyperuricemia is closely linked with an increased risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, renal failure and other metabolic syndromes. Probiotics, bioactive compounds and dietary patterns are safe cost-efficient ways to control hyperuricemia, whereas comprehensive reviews of their anti-hyperuricemic mechanisms are limited. This review summarizes the roles of probiotics, bioactive compounds and dietary patterns in treating hyperuricemia and critically reviews the possible mechanisms by which these interventions exert their activities. The dietary patterns are closely related to the occurrence of hyperuricemia through the indirect action of gut microbiota or the direct effects of host purine metabolism. The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets help reduce serum uric acid concentrations and thus prevent hyperuricemia. Meanwhile, probiotics alleviate hyperuricemia by ways of absorbing purine, restoring gut microbiota dysbiosis and inhibiting xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, peptides and alkaloids exert various anti-hyperuricemic effects, by regulating urate transporters, blocking the active sites of XO and inhibiting the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway and NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 signaling pathway. This review will assist people with hyperuricemia to adopt a healthy diet and contribute to the application of natural products with anti-hyperuricemic activity.
Lei Sun,Caixin Ni,Jianxin Zhao,Gang Wang,Wei Chen