IBD的饮食风险因素与饮食干预(综述)
创作:阿包 审核:aluba 2022年09月27日
  • 西方饮食中的过量特定宏量营养素(饱和/多不饱和脂肪酸、简单碳水化合物等)及食品添加剂(乳化剂、食用色素等)通过调节肠道菌群的组成及功能,以破坏宿主-菌群互作,从而诱发或加剧肠道炎症;
  • 全肠内营养(EEN)、克罗恩病和溃疡性结肠炎排除饮食(CDED/UCED)、特殊碳水化合物饮食(SCD)、低FODMAP饮食(LFD)、无谷蛋白饮食(GFD)等可用于缓解IBD;
  • 利用饮食精准营养个性化干预肠道菌群有望成为缓解IBD患者的治疗策略。
主编推荐语
aluba
Gut上发表的一篇综述文章,详细介绍了西方饮食中富含的各类宏量营养素(碳水化合物、脂肪、蛋白质)及食品添加剂如何通过菌群依赖性及非依赖性方式诱发或恶化肠道炎症,并概述了在儿童及成人IBD中进行的多种饮食/营养干预试验,最后讨论了对照医学试验进行营养试验设计的必要性。
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Gut [IF:31.793]

Diet fuelling inflammatory bowel diseases: preclinical and clinical concepts

饮食促进IBD:临床前与临床概念

10.1136/gutjnl-2021-326575

2022-09-16, Review

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The diet and gut microbiota have been extensively interrogated as a fuel for gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in the last few years. Here, we review how specific nutrients, typically enriched in a Western diet, instigate or deteriorate experimental gut inflammation in a genetically susceptible host and we discuss microbiota-dependent and independent mechanisms. We depict the study landscape of nutritional trials in paediatric and adult IBD and delineate common grounds for dietary advice. Conclusively, the diet reflects a critical rheostat of microbial dysbiosis and gut inflammation in IBD. Dietary restriction by exclusive enteral nutrition, with or without a specific exclusion diet, is effectively treating paediatric Crohn’s disease, while adult IBD trials are less conclusive. Insights into molecular mechanisms of nutritional therapy will change the perception of IBD and will allow us to enter the era of precision nutrition. To achieve this, we discuss the need for carefully designed nutritional trials with scientific rigour comparable to medical trials, which also requires action from stake holders. Establishing evidence-based dietary therapy for IBD does not only hold promise to avoid long-term immunosuppression, but to provide a widely accessible therapy at low cost. Identification of dietary culprits disturbing gut health also bears the potential to prevent IBD and allows informed decision making in food politics.

First Authors:
Timon E Adolph

Correspondence Authors:
Timon E Adolph

All Authors:
Timon E Adolph,Jingwan Zhang

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